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Chrysotile and health
About ratification of the Rotterdam convention
About a position of the Government of the Russian Federation concerning use of chrysotile asbestos
About ratification of the convention 162
Causes and effects of antiasbestine campaign
The latest researches on a subject "Asbestos and health"
About absence of amphibole fibres in chrysotile of the company "Uralasbest"
Links to other sites about chrysotile
Publications and materials
About ratification of the Rotterdam convention
The Government of the Russian Federation
The DECISION from December 17th, 2010, No.1034 Moscow
About joining of the Russian Federation to the Rotterdam convention on procedure of preliminary well-founded consent concerning separate dangerous chemical substances and pesticides in international trade from September, 10th, 1998
According to article 21 of the Federal law "About international contracts of the Russian Federation" the Governmentof of the Russian Federation decides:
1. To approve the offer on joining of the Russian Federation to the Rotterdam convention on procedure of the preliminary well-founded consent concerning separate dangerous chemical substances and pesticides in international trade from September, 10th, 1998
2. To bring in the State Duma of Federal Assembly of Russia the project of the federal law "About joining of the Russian Federation to the Rotterdam convention on procedure of the preliminary well-founded consent concerning separate dangerous chemical substances and pesticides in international trade from September, 10th, 1998".
3. To appoint the stats-secretary - the deputy minister of public health services and social development of the RUSSIAN FEDERATION Voronin Yury Viktorovich the official representative of the Government of the Russian Federation by consideration by chambers of Federal Assembly of Russia of a question on joining of Russian Federation to the convention specified in point 1 of the real decision.
The chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation V.V.Putin
About a position of the Government of the Russian Federation concerning use of chrysotile asbestos
The Government of the Russian Federation
The DECISION from July 31st, 1998, No.869 Moscow
The Government of the Russian Federation decides:
1. To accept the offer of the Ministry of the Russian Federation on the ground policy, building and housing and communal services, coordinated with federal enforcement authorities, about the statement of the text of a position of the Russian Federation concerning use chrysotile asbestos.
2. To assign to the Ministry of the Russian Federation of the ground policy, building and municipal services of function of the coordinator concerning manufacture and use of chrysotile asbestos and products on his basis.
3. To the Ministry of Labour and social development of the Russian Federation and to the Ministry of the Russian Federation of the ground policy, building and housing and communal services together with other interested federal enforcement authorities to carry out a complex of the organizational-technical measures necessary for ratification of the convention of the International organization of work of 1986 No.162 "About a labor safety at asbestos use".
4. To the ministry of the Russian Federation of the ground policy, building and municipal services, the Ministry of the Russian Federation when due hereunder to finish a position of the Russian Federation concerning use chrysotile asbestos to data of committee of cooperation Russia-the-European union, the International organization of work, World Health Organization and other interested organizations. Last years a number of the countries not quite soundly forbids application of chrysotile asbestos and a product on his basis. Thus it is not taken into consideration that this material is used more than hundred years by the person in many spheres of ability to live thanks to the natural properties. Being based on practice of long-term use of chrysotile asbestos in Russia, researches of the Russian academy of medical sciences and recommendations of the International organization of work about a labor safety at asbestos use, the Russian Federation considers:
- the accepted interdictions for application of asbestos in a number of the countries are based on the medical and biologic and statistical data on asbestos cause to the diseases caused by use, basically, asbestos of amphibole groups and don't consider national social and economic interests, results of scientific researches and scientific and technical achievements of last years in the field of manufacture and use chrysotile asbestos;
- unduly hasty and unreasonable refusal of use chrysotile asbestos has no sufficient medical and biologic substantiations and can cause serious negative consequences for economy of variety of the countries. The Russian Federation supports positions of the convention of the International organization of work 1986 No. 162 "About a labor safety at asbestos use" and considers that observance of requirements of the specified convention with simultaneous realization of a complex of organizational-technical measures on control over use chrysotile asbestos and products on his basis guarantees safety of his application for people and environment.
The chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation S.Kirienko
About ratification of the convention of 1986 year, number 162 about a labor safety at asbestos use
The federal law of the Russian Federation
Is accepted by the State Duma on March, 10th, 2000.
It is approved by the Federation Council on March, 29th, 2000.
To ratify the convention of 1986 on a labor safety at asbestos use (the convention number 162), accepted 72nd session of General conference of the International organization of work on June, 24th, 1986 in the city of Geneva.
The acting president of the Russian Federation V.V.Putin
Moscow, the Kremlin, on April, 8th, 2000, number 50 - Federal Laws
About absence of amphibole fibres in chrysotile of the company "Uralasbest"
"Studying of a dust content of air of a working zone at the enterprises for extraction and dressing of chrysotile-asbestos of industrial complex "Uralasbest", city of Asbest, Russia"
The Extract from report
A.Tossavajnen, Helsinki, Finland; R.Riala, Helsinki, Finland; R.Kjamppi, Helsinki, Finland; M.Holtta, Helsinki, Finland; P.Tohka, Helsinki, Finland; V.Johns, Morgantaun, the USA; D.Grous, Morgantaun, the USA; D.Shvegler-Berri, Morgantaun, the USA; D.Parker, Morgantaun, the USA; L.Elovsky, Russian Academy of Medical Science, Moscow, Russia; Å.Kovalevsky, Russian Academy of Medical Science, Moscow, Russia; S.Domnin, Ekaterinburg, Russia; E.Plotko, Ekaterinburg, Russia; S.ShCherbakov, Ekaterinburg, Russia; S.Kashansky, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Finland, Helsinki, 1996
This research is a part of joint Russian-American-Finnish scientific work within of 3 year program "Studying of working conditions and a state of health of the workers occupied on working out of asbestine deposits of Siberia" in which Russian Academies of Medical Science, the Ekaterinburg Medical Centre of science, the American National Institute of the Labour safety and Hygiene, and the Finnish Institute of Medicine of Work, participate.
All found out in air of the surveyed enterprises of a fibre were chrysotile. Amphibole fibres were not revealed neither in ore, nor in production, in tests of a dust from air of a working zone. Concentration of free SiO2 was low 1 % on weight.
Links to other sites about chrysotile
Russia. Chrysotile Assosiation. www.chrysotile.ru www.livechrysotile.com
The International Alliance of Trade Unions "Chrysotile". www.nochrysotileban.com
Canada. Chrysotile Institute. www.chrysotile.com
Great Britain. The New England Journal of Medicine. http://content.nejm.org
Great Britain. Asbestos researches. www.asbestoswatchdog.co.uk
Brazil. Chrysotile researches. www.sama.com.br
Causes and effects of antiasbestine campaign
V.A.Kochelaev, the chairman of expert council of the noncommercial organization "Chrysotile association"
Asbestos is known since very old times. For 1300 B.C. in China and India priests had fireproof clothes from this mineral in which entered into fire and, to people amazement, left him live, causing thereby a worship for self. For 300-400 years B.C. the mineral was known in Greece where has received the name "asbestos" - nonflammable. In the Middle Ages considered that asbestos is wool of the animal similar to a snake, living in fire and named a salamander. His wool doesn't burn and from her it is possible to weave fireproof fabrics.
Asbestos has been found in Russia in 1720 in Average Ural Mountains under Nevjansky where mine industrialist Nikita Demidov has organized extraction of the mineral named "mountain flax". From this mineral skilled craftsmen refined gloves for rich ladies knitted, made a fabric and clothes for working metal works. In 1722 Nikita Demidov has presented a cloth from asbestos to the Russian emperor Peter I and to all present on reception has shown her unique property - incombustibility. Asbestos manufacture under Nevjansky, in connection with absence of the big benefit, has existed hardly more than 20 years - till 1742. However interest to him in the world hasn't run low. In 1876 the asbestos deposit has been found in Canada long time won first place on his extraction. In 1885 in Ural Mountains there was opened Bazhenovskoye deposit of chrysotile-asbestos, and since 1889 his industrial working out has begun. In 70th years of 20th century Soviet Union has come out on top in the world on extraction of this mineral. Now Russia is the largest manufacturer and the chrysotile-asbestos consumer. He has found wide application thanks to the unique properties: high adsorption abilities, elasticity, durability, chemical firmness, high factor of a friction, fire resistance, elasticity and many other surprising properties. Despite enormous efforts and mullions-strong dollar expenses, and the substances having the same set of useful properties which asbestos possesses aren't found.
The reasons of antiasbestine campaign
Extraction, enrichment and use of many minerals in uncontrollable conditions is connected with negative influence on health of the person. Didn't become an exception and asbestos. In 1907 in England doctor Mjurrej has found out for the first time a case of professional pulmonary disease - an asbestosis in the worker contacting to asbestos. After that the attention of a medical science has been drawn to a fibre. Since 30th years the materials devoted to an adverse effect of asbestos including dust are published in escalating volume abroad and at us in the country. In the early seventies scale basic researches of scientists-physicians have confirmed oncological danger for working long time with asbestos. The international agency on cancer studying has included a mineral in group of substances with authentically proved cancerogenic properties. Known American scientist Irving Selikoff during the same period has put forward position "and one fibre kills" which has been supported by some foreign researchers and has formed a basis for wide antiasbestine campaign. In 1978 the National institute of the Cancer and National institute of sciences about environment of the USA have published calculations according to which "the professional exposition to asbestos will lead more than to two millions premature death from malignant diseases the next three decades". And though known scientific epidemiologists of Lord Doll and Peto from the Oxford University have commented that the report of institute of a cancer has been written more likely from political, than scientific reasons, and that the estimations resulted in him "were erroneous to such degree that it is not necessary to take seriously any arguments having at least remote relation to them", nevertheless, these erroneous estimations have been apprehended by a society with all gravity and antiasbestine campaign was included into houses of citizens of the USA and Europe with newspapers, magazines and television. In the USA and the Western Europe there were programs on restriction and prohibition of use of asbestos, and also on his removal from earlier constructed buildings and constructions
Most the vigorous activity on prohibition of use of asbestos was developed by Agency on protection of environment of the USA which has accepted in 1989 the decision about an asbestos interdiction by 1996. In 1991 the Appeal court of the USA cancelled this decision because of his insufficient validity, as agency:
- hasn't studied possibility of replacement of asbestos cheaper alternative materials;
- hasn't studied probable harmful consequences of growth of use of substitutes, many of which contain carcinogens;
- hasn't counted up possible losses of the state as a result of acceptance of this decision.
At last methods of work of agency have been condemned at decision-making which don't provide the account of all opinions. William Rajli, the manager of EPA of the USA, recognized recently that "the government and agency should incur a part of responsibility for wrong understanding which has led to unjustified excitements and unnecessary elimination of asbestos". Here pertinently to notice that mentioned above I.Selikoff never called for an interdiction of use of asbestos and named controllable use by an effective way of preventive maintenance asbestos cause diseases. In the USA asbestos use is authorized now. The interdiction extends only on a building and sheet cardboard, a paper goffered and special, on new kinds of use of asbestos. All the rest is authorized: a fibrocement, frictional materials and many other things. However the wave of an antiasbestine psychosis has been lifted and threw to the Western Europe where in 90-s' years one country for another have started to forbid asbestos. In 1999 the European Commission has accepted the instruction on prohibition of use of asbestos and products from him in the countries of the European Union since January, 1st, 2005. Unfortunately, on it the management of the European Union hasn't calmed down, it began to put pressure upon other countries for the purpose of an asbestos interdiction in them. Movement for an asbestos interdiction with headquarters in London and branches in the different countries of the world is created. Movement is well organized and possesses the big financial resources. With a position of a total interdiction of asbestos the governments of many countries of the world, first of all asbestos extrating and asbestos using don't agree; many visible scientists, including those countries where asbestos is forbidden don't agree.
The policy of safe controllable use of chrysotile-asbestos is accurately registered in the Convention 162 International organizations of work which was ratified by many countries, including Russia in 2000. At 60th session of the World Assembly of Public health services in 2007 the Global plan of action on health protection working in which item 10 the differentiated approach to regulation of various forms of asbestos for the purpose of liquidation asbetos causing diseases is proclaimed is accepted. Today in the world it is used about 2000 harmful substances, including more than 300 with cancerogenic properties, there are many productions which technology causes occurrence of oncological diseases. There is a logic question - why so the asbestos interdiction is actively propagandized.
Seven most investigated reasons of antiasbestine campaign.
1. Use in countries of Western Europe in considerable quantities of amphibole asbestos.
The term "asbestos" unites the big group of the natural fibrous minerals different from each other by structure, a crystal structure, physical and chemical properties, and also features of biological influence on a human body. In the USA and in the Western Europe till 90th years of last century in considerable quantities were used acid resistante group of amphibole asbestos. According to modern researches amphibole asbestos possesses higher biological aggression in comparison with chrysotile-asbestos. Fibres of amphibole asbestos at penetration into lungs can be in them throughout all human life while chrysotile-asbestos fibres are capable to be dissolved in the acid pulmonary environment and to be deduced from an organism. Therefore groundlessness of the identical approach to an estimation of influence of various types of asbestos on health of the person is obvious. Results of researches of biological firmness of a fibre in the lungs spent by laboratories of Switzerland, Germany and the USA, show that the semideducing period for amphibole fibres of amosite asbestos makes 466 days, while chrysotile is from 1 till 14 days. Higher biological activity of amphibole fibres is recognized in the world. On different scientific sources on the average she exceeds biological activity of chrysotile-asbestos in 100-500 times. A problem of the Western Europe that in total amounts of consumption of asbestos there is to 20 % made amphibole-asbestos. Only in the early nineties the last century use of amphibole asbestos was forbidden. Therefore there is nothing surprising that disease and death rate from a cancer of lungs and the mesotheliomas of a pleura connected with use of mixes of asbestos, in the Western Europe in tens and hundreds times more, than in the CIS countries and the Eastern Europe where chrysotile-asbestos was extracted and used only.
Especially obvious distinction between asbestos types consists in their ability to cause development of disease of a pleura. Actually this disease is connected with an exposition of amphibole fibres. There, where it was mainly used chrysotile asbestos delivered from Russia, prevalence of a mesothelioma of a pleura is practically at background level. And in Europe not all is unequivocal. Researches of two scientific Austrias, the country entering into EU, the countries where the fibrocement has been invented are recently published. Scientists of Austria don't agree with the statement that in Europe epidemic from asbestos expands. They prove that in Austria no data on epidemic of a mesothelioma from asbestos is present and it is not expected. They consider that it is impossible to predict death rate from asbestos only on 6 countries, "forgetting" the data on other countries, such as Austria, Czechia, Slovakia. According to scientists of Austria, low frequency of asbestos cause diseases in Austria speaks the short period of use amphibole asbestos (20 years - with 1948 for 1968) and absence of practice of a dusting of asbestos on building designs that was widely applied in Germany, France, Great Britain, the USA. The western scientists who are standing up for an interdiction of asbestos, basically dealt with results of researches of amphibole asbestos or a mix of amphibole with chrysotile. Now, according to recommendations the SQUANDERER, application of amphibole asbestos is forbidden in all countries, including in Russia. Unfortunately, the population and the public of the world have no sufficient information that there are different kinds of asbestos with various biological activity. For many people "asbestos" is a uniform mineral.
2. High level of disease and death rate at asbestos use in uncontrollable conditions last years (since 1940 till 1980) .
In the majority of foreign researches the raised risk of development of asbestos caused diseases has been found out mainly at isolating workers, working shipyards and asbestos textile factories, in days of the Second World War working with asbestos (amphibole in a mix with chrysotile) in the conditions of extremely high concentration (ten and hundred in mg / in cubic sm), at total absence of protection frames. Last decades in the world, including in Russia, considerable measures on improvement of working conditions and preservations of the environment have been taken. Level of asbestos caused diseases has as a result decreased. So, the number of cases of an asbestosis in industrial complex "Uralasbest" has decreased from 29 %, from number passed periodic surveys in 1950, to the 0.01-th shares of percent now. On the asbestos extrating enterprises of Canada where the confirmed maximum permissible concentration equal 1 fiber/ml isn't exceeded, already more than 30 years didn't come to light any new case of an asbestosis. The Canadian experts not without justification consider that the asbestosis is an illness of the past. By the way, on the asbestos cement enterprises of Russia also it is not revealed any case of an asbestosis. Many enterprises in the world, using asbestos, own the best technologies providing low level of an exposition on a workplace. Now in member countries of the International asbestine association only 1,3 % of analyses of a dust content of air don't correspond to maximum concentration limit, the equal 2 fiber/ml (many scientists consider this maximum concentration limit as border between dangerous influence of asbestos and safe), and doesn't exceed 96 % of analyses 1 ox/ml. Nevertheless, opponents of asbestos persistently extrapolate negative indicators of the past on modern manufacture, thus don't take into consideration that the population, builders use not asbestos in the pure state, and products in which he is in a matrix of binding substance. At use of finished articles of a fibre of asbestos in environment practically aren't allocated, concentration in air it is insignificant it is small. Even at destruction dense asbestos including products in air asbestos in the pure state, and the fibres aggregated with binding substance is allocated, as a rule, not.
3. Error of some scientists concerning absence for asbestos of a threshold of safety.
The specified error if this error, instead of deliberate misinformation, allows an occasion to politicians to conduct extreme antiasbestine campaign. It is not taken into consideration that asbestos is a natural product, by analogy to oxygen, is present at all corners of the world in air and water. The matter is that asbestos lies down in serpentine which are one of the basic rocks of a planet. On the average each inhabitant of the Earth irrespective of where he lives, inhales and swallows millions asbestine fibres daily. These are billions people, but the risk to be ill with asbestos cause diseases is possible only at those who is professionally connected with asbestos on manufacture. Yes, chrysotile-asbestos is classified as cancerogenic substance, but classification of the International agency of studying of a cancer is based on property of substance to cause a cancer. And it doesn't mean that the substance is carcinogen under all circumstances, in particular, at a small exposition. It is necessary to notice that in group "Substance, cancerogenic for the person" are 99 substances and mixes, and also activity kinds: "Gasoline", "Wood dust", "Alcoholic drinks", "footwear manufacture", "furniture manufacturing". Very few people knows that classification of the International agency by cancer studying includes only danger identification, but doesn't include a risk estimation, that is an estimation of possible toxic displays under actual conditions of use. Recently seven known scientists from Great Britain, the USA, Switzerland, Canada have addressed the offer that this organization in the documents has made corresponding explanations to warn against consequences of extreme control or an interdiction, and that classification doesn't intend for use as the tool for interdictions without an estimation of corresponding risk. The recognition of substance the cancerogenic doesn't mean that at the person is inevitable can there will be a tumor at a meeting with it. Real danger depends on cancerogenic activity of this substance and a dose which is received by the person. Many scientists consider that at today's levels of an exposition risk from chrysotile-asbestos very small and, probably, not found out. Of it us convince statistical given around the city to Asbest of Sverdlovsk area. In a city, besides company "Uralasbest" into which structure enter mine and dressing factory, there are factory of asbestos technical products, scientific-research institute with pilot factory. Thus the part of the enterprises works directly in a city, and the city is onboard the world's largest open-cast mine where chrysotile-asbestos is extracted. Thus, city of Asbest is rather representative for the analysis and studying of chrysotile asbestos influence on working people and the population as a whole. Some West European mass media the city is declared by unsuccessful. However the medical statistics speaks about other: indicators of the general death rate in the city of Asbest more low, than in Sverdlovsk area, and indicators of death rate from oncological diseases only slightly above. The Ekaterinburg medical center of science of preventive maintenance and health protection of the working industrial enterprises spends comparison of death rate from a cancer of the easy population of the Asbest city which professionally has been not connected with asbestos, and the population of other cities of Sverdlovsk area where there are no the manufactures connected with asbestos. Indicators on Asbest city have appeared are comparable with indicators of "not asbestine" cities. In the city of Asbest it is not revealed any case of asbestos cause diseases among the inhabitants who do not have by the nature of the professional work contact with chrysotile-asbestos. Similar researches were spent in the cities of Asbestoss and Tetford-Majns in Canada where the industry on chrysotile-asbestos extraction also is concentrated. Results are similar to conclusions of the Russian scientists - the raised death rate it is not revealed. The numerous epidemiological researches spent in the European countries, Canada, India, the republic of South Africa, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Russia at use only chrysotile testify that, like any mineral dust, at enough high concentration and the big duration of an exposition to chrysotile, there is a potential possibility of development of diseases. However at low levels of an exposition to chrysotile lungs of the person can quite cope with fibres and a dust.
4. Errors or deliberate misinformation about safety of artificial mineral fibres chrysotile-asbestos substitutes.
With watchfulness to concern artificial mineral fibres call documents of World Health Organization and the International organization of work which carry them to possible and probable cancerogenic substances. About same researches of foreign and Russian scientists testify. In November, 2005 in France to Lyons the symposium the CART on chrysotile-asbestos substitutes has been organized. This symposium has taken place on demand of secretary of the Rotterdam convention. Opponents of use of chrysotile-asbestos speak about his results almost nothing. And it isn't casual. Ten experts, including three of the USA have been invited to this symposium, one of Japan, other of the Western Europe, still were present three invited experts (two of the USA and one of Germany). It has been considered twelve types of various fibres, classified on danger degree. Because experimental researches and especially epidemiological on chrysotile-asbestos substitutes it is spent a little, on many of them what or conclusions to make it was not presented possible. By four kinds of fibres danger uncertain. From them it is necessary to allocate fibres which are widely advertized today in the countries of South East Asia, in particular in Vietnam as safe, production technologies of wavy roofs with use of this material are developed. High degree of danger is defined for oktitanate potassium, average - for pair-amid fibres. Many disputes have caused definition of degree of danger for synthetic glass pattern fibres (fiber glass, mineral cotton wool, fire-resistant ceramic fibres concern them). Today a considerable quantity is imported to Russia from the West roofing and heat insulation materials with use of fibres-substitutes, new factories are under construction. And it is obligatory this production it is presented as non-polluting, not containing asbestos. As a result of disputes have converged on a following conclusion: high danger for bio-persistent fibres and low for nonbio-persistent. Bio-persistent is a duration of time of a finding of particles of fibres inhaled by the person in lungs before they will be deduced, better to say "firmness". Results of already mentioned research on bio-persistance under the direction of the Swiss scientists show that firmness of chemical fibres the high. So, if for fibres of a natural mineral of chrysotile the semideducing period makes from 1 till 14 days, ceramic fibres - 60 days, fiber glasses - from 6 till 79 days, stone cotton wool - from 5 till 67 days, an aramide fibre - 45 days. For respirable cellulose fibres danger isn't defined in connection with small quantity of the data. It is necessary to notice that the period of semideducing for cellulose has made 1046 days. And only for three kinds of fibres, not so widespread, - vollastonite, ksonoklite and carbonaceous fibres - danger is recognized by low. The conclusions of this symposium made the West European and American experts, won't be coordinated with arguments of initiators of an interdiction chrysotile-asbestos. Meanwhile, the world markets are filled by "non-polluting" artificial mineral both organic substances and products from them, applying for a role of substitutes of chrysotile-asbestos. According to an unfair advertizing, the inscription "non-asbestos" became an inscription synonym "non-polluting". Thus suppliers of substitutes of asbestos hold back necessity of application of the same security measures with their material, as at chrysotile-asbestos use. To consumers and the population, not warned about necessity of observance of security measures to the new goods, the damage can be caused to health. Besides, the products replacing asbestos cement, at 2-10 time are more expensive. The population poor and developing countries is unable buy them. There are for many long years unresolved many social problems - housing, maintenance with potable water, the water drain, etc. Nevertheless, despite preventions of scientists-physicians, the western countries push on the markets of the poor both poorest countries substitutes and technologies of their manufacture.
5. Unfair and biassed demographic forecasts from outside both scientists, and politicians.
For example, the Minister of Health, social security and education of the USA mister Kolifano in 1978 has made the forecast that the next years of the population of 17 % of the USA will die of a cancer connected with an exposition to asbestos. Has passed 20 years - the prophecy has appeared imagination. But, unfortunately, on such inexact forecasts decisions on an interdiction of use of asbestos are made. The ministry of social affairs and employment questions in the Netherlands predicts in the special report that the next years in this country 40 thousand persons from number before occupied on the works connected with use of asbestos will die. And, the peak of death is expected during the period between 2010 and 2025 years. In Great Britain the forecast according to which by 2020 the annual quantity of death in this country will reach 10 thousand is exaggerated. Thus nobody uses rather easily defined actual indicators of risk of death for last years when there were very bad working conditions, nobody tries to define coincidence of the predictions to the real facts after the predicted period. However frightening forecasts immediately extend mass media, cause asbestine phobia in the population and the public and, as consequence, the requirement about a substance interdiction.
6. A competition from manufacturers of alternative materials.
This reason can objectively stand on any, including on the first place. Antiasbestine campaign has arisen and is actively spent in the countries which do not have own deposits of asbestos, but having powerful chemical and the iron and steel industry making substitutes of asbestos. In campaign carrying out huge financial assets of transnational concerns are used. Psychologists and economists of these concerns participate in work of the commissions of the European Union and the Council of Europe at discussion of a problem of asbestos. Unfortunately, the industry connected with asbestos (basically it is the small asbestine enterprises), can't take adequate measures since, we will tell directly, is rather poor in comparison with the world chemical industry, and the political potential isn't comparable with the European commission. Created in 1976 the International Chrysotile Assosiation uniting associations of about 40 countries, tries to counteract antiasbestine campaign on the basis of the scientific data, but her financial possibilities aren't comparable to those in transnational chemical concerns. And, these concerns aren't limited to commodity markets in the rich countries, but conduct antiasbestine campaign and in the countries of the so-called third world. On a wave of antiasbestine campaign in the USA and the Western Europe there was a new direction in business - the firms specializing on removal of asbestos from buildings. Their incomes make billions US dollars. It is natural that they also have actively joined in antiasbestine campaign. Antiasbestine campaign had actively joined the business lawyers, earning hundred millions dollars on so-called "victims of asbestos". The word "so-called" is used because as results of investigations in the USA testify, 90 % of diagnoses about asbestos cause disease is false. Of a wave of antiasbestine campaign make profit, to a deep regret, and many western scientists receiving from the European structures huge "grants" on carrying out of researches with antiasbestine results. To state an objective estimation to chrysotile-asbestos and thus refuse the European feeding trough many can't.
7. The political reasons.
In the Western Europe and a number of other countries mass media in relation to asbestos create the atmosphere close to a psychosis. The public opinion in the majority is incited against a mineral. Naturally, many politicians can't pass by it and exploit an antiasbestine spirit. To Great Britain, for example, there were discussions about use of chrysotile-asbestos, opinions among scientists were different. And here prime minister Tony Blair practically right after his election on a post, without having had time to get acquainted with a problem, has made the statement for an asbestos interdiction. In campaign mind some asbestos last 10 years the European trade unions participated, but their activity has especially increased last 2 years. Thus as the coordinator of a general hysteria on introduction of an interdiction for asbestos the international Federation of Workers of Building and Woodworking industries began to act. In 2005 the International Conference of Free trade unions was connected to antiasbestine campaign. This trade union spends active work on involving to antiasbestine movement of the various organizations. He was possible manage support of the World Federation of Associations of public health services, the International commission on Professional hygiene, of the International society of doctors for environment, the International association of social security, trade unions at the commission of the United Nations on a sustainable development, the International trade union of workers of iron and steel industry etc. the Main objective: to involve in antiasbestine movement it is as much as possible organizations, trade unions and to show that movement minds some asbestos - world, mass. The international organization of work at conference of 2006 under the pressure of the European trade unions in the agenda had been included the resolution asbestos use mind. The question about "Resolutions on asbestos" didn't stand in the conference agenda, and has been taken out already during conference that contradicts procedure Rules. Accordingly, in a cut of the Charter the SQUANDERER, it has not been spent necessary "careful technical training and consultations" on this point in question. In protest at excessive pressure and infringements of the Charter the SQUANDERER one of three parties - the group of Employers - has with its full complement refused participation in voting. Nevertheless, "the Resolution on asbestos" has been taken out on plenary session of Conference the SQUANDERER in penultimate day (conference lasted 17 days) when many have already parted including representatives of the CIS countries, and representatives of the European Union remained and have amicably voted "for an interdiction". It is necessary to notice that
In 2005 the government of Egypt has forbidden manufacture of asbestos cement products, and more recently Academy of medical sciences of Egypt, having discussed use question of asbestos cement products, has drawn a conclusion that their manufacture and use is safe that no medical reasons for an asbestos interdiction existing and has urged the country government to start again asbestos cement factories. Unfortunately, in the majority of the countries of a policy decisions on an asbestos interdiction in a similar way made, without an extensive discussion, quite often without reckoning with opinion of a medical science. The rights of Emilio Kosta - the Italian industrialist: "Human nonsense, in a combination to huge commercial interests, have ruined use of one of the most valuable natural fibres which the mankind" ever had. Italy, as it is known, has forbidden asbestos too. Arises some kind of "vicious circle".
The campaign directed on attraction of attention to a problem of asbestos, has played a positive role. In many countries effective systems which have allowed to prevent an adverse effect of asbestos on working people and the population have been developed and introduced in practice. On the other hand, already generated public opinion, a certain position of mass media, political and economic interests of the separate enterprises and the organizations demand continuation of antiasbestine campaign from scientists and a policy, representatives of the international organizations which last years (it is frequent quite soundly) spoke about importance of preventive maintenance asbestos cause diseases. In these cases nobody is already interested in the objective scientific data. Not without reason the American council about a science and health in October, 2007 in article "The Exposition to asbestos: how much is she dangerous ?" ascertains: "Problem now is, whether will be to use regulating departments the modern scientific data even if it will demand to change system for a long time existing concepts or views concerning influence of asbestos on health of the person". To us having huge stocks of this mineral and convinced that chrysotile-asbestos and products on his basis can be used safely, would be silly to refuse him.
The hysteria on a bird flu has ended with recently milliard expenses in dollars. Campaign for a question of the global warming, initiated by a number of the European organizations, is called in question and is in a stage of disputes and discussions. The hysteria on chrysotile-asbestos still grows.
The latest researches on a subject "Asbestos and health"
V.A.Kochelaev, the chairman of expert council of the noncommercial organization "Chrysotile association". The brochure. 2010. Asbest city.
Once again about asbestos and the newest international medical researches connected with it.
In the brochure the review of results of the newest international medical researches, concerning possibilities of safe use in controllable conditions of chrysotile-asbestos, his biological activity in comparison with ampibole is executed. Researches are spent in 1998-2009 by scientists of the different countries: Austria, Great Britain, Greece, Israel, Lithuania, Poland, Ukraine, the republic of South Africa, etc. The occasion to a writing of the given brochure is the desire of the author to draw attention of the public to discussion about possibility of safe, controllable use of chrysotile-asbestos and materials containing him and products has served. The newest medical scientific data and practical experience, according to the author, confirm that observance of safety rules on manufacture guarantees minimization of cases of professional asbestos caused diseases. The edition is intended for laymen, who interested by a problem of safe use of chrysotile-asbestos (chrysotile) and materials containing him and products. The author - Vladimir Andreevich Kochelaev, the chairman of scientific and technical advisory council of the noncommercial organization "Chrysotile association".
The term "asbestos" is a commercial name of group of natural fibrous minerals (used in industrial products) of different content and crystal structure, physical and chemical properties, and also features of biological influence on a human body. Two groups of such minerals are known: serpentinite (chrysotile) and amphibole (crokidolite, amosite, antophilite, tremolite and aktinolite). One of basic distinctions between asbestos kinds is their stability to influence of acids. Acid stable asbestos of amphibole group, getting to lungs of the person, can be and collect in them throughout all life. It causes high risk for the person as at professional, and nonprofessional influence on him of amphibole. Fibres of chrysotile asbestos are capable to be dissolved quickly in the sour environment, including pulmonary, and are deduced from an organism by a natural way.
The question of influence of asbestos on health of the person causes in the world numerous disputes, discussions, especially last decade when he has appeared in the center of numerous, most various interests: medical, ecological, commercial, political and others.
Anti-chrysotile campaign is constructed basically on doubtful, erroneous and false forecasts about quantity of death from chrysotile use. Campaign in 1978 in the USA after the report of National institute of a cancer and National institute of environment studying, in which it is said that asbestos application the next three decades will lead to 2 million premature death, has begun. And during the same time the Minister of Health, social security and education of the USA of J.Caliphano has declared at a trade-union leaders meeting that annually 17 % of all death from malignant new growths in the USA will be connected with asbestos application.
In 1981 known English scientific epidemiologists R.Doll and R.Peto from Oxford university have given the comment to these forecasts: the report of National institute of a cancer is written more likely from political, than from scientific reasons. The figures resulted in him "to such degree are erroneous that it is not necessary to take seriously any arguments having at least remote relation to them". Nevertheless these erroneous figures have been apprehended by a society with all gravity, and antiasbestine campaign with newspapers, magazines and television was incoming into houses of citizens of the USA, Europe and other countries and became some kind of the factor distracting from other problems.
Today, after the lapse of more than 30 years, it is possible to ascertain that the above-named forecasts haven't something in common with the validity. Forecasts have left in a non-existence, now nobody remembers them, but the phobia of asbestos caused by them lives. Her new forecasts, for example epidemiologist Dz.Peto in 1999 has declared that "in the nearest Ç5 years of Europeans becomes less on 250 thousand because of a mesothelioma and on 500 thousand because of a cancer of the lungs caused by application of asbestos". Has passed 10 years, but preconditions of that forecasts will come true, no. However the antiasbestine hysteria generated by them, proceeds.
According to different authors, risks at influence of chrysotile and amphibole differ in hundreds times. It is necessary to notice that countries of Western Europe and the USA in which antiasbestine campaign has arisen, many long years were the basic consumers of amphibole asbestos extracted in Southern Africa, Australia, Finland and Italy. Amphibole used as a part of materials and products (insulating covers, a dusting, friable panels, etc.), the most dangerous from the point of view of ability of allocation of free fibres in environment.
In Russia and countries of Eastern Europe amphibole asbestos in building wasn't used also by methods of a dusting of asbestos on building designs didn't apply. Therefore not casually positions of scientists and the public of the different countries in relation to asbestos are various, as they are based on knowledge and experience of use of different kinds of asbestos and methods of his application.
In second half of twentieth century a significant amount of scientific researches is spent according to influence of asbestos on health of the person. However the majority of researchers didn't differentiate the risk connected with application of his different kinds.
Only last decade many scientists, including those countries where asbestos is forbidden, recognized necessity to differentiate risks in connection with use of chrysotile and amphibole, and also to state an estimation of real danger of application pure chrysotile (without asbestos impurity of amphibole groups) in controllable conditions.
The urgency of scientific researches consists that controllable use chrysotile concerns destinies of people working not only in chrysotile industry, but also billions people in the world, needing accessible habitation and pure potable water. It is caused by that chrysotile is a component of chrysotile cement - one of the most durable building materials from whom both the most hygienic and cheap pipes and slate and a roofing material popular and accessible at the price are maked. The received results deny the point of view treated in a number of the countries on extreme danger of all kinds of asbestos.
In the given brochure results of the newest scientific researches for the purpose of reception of answers to questions are systematized:
1. How chrysotile and amphibole influence on health ?
2. Whether can cause pure chrysotile-asbestos a mesothelioma ?
3. Whether exist threshold level of an exposition below which adverse influence on health isn't found out ?
4. Whether low levels of an exposition of chrysotile can cause the raised risk of oncological diseases?
Answers to these questions are based on results of epidemiological researches pure chrysotile, executed in last years.
Possibility of safe, controllable chrysotile use.
The state-of-the-art review of the researches executed by scientists of the different countries.
The urgency of a question on possibility of safe, controllable chrysotile use is caused by that the different organizations of antiasbestine sense, first of all European, still create round application of chrysotile fear and even psychosis atmosphere. With that end in view by means of mass media, at numerous international seminars and conferences they spend the most powerful ÐR-actions. Unfortunately, separate officials of the International organization of work, World Health Organization, Secretary of the Rotterdam convention and others haven't taken the trouble to understand a being of disputes. Without penetrating into an essence of the numerous scientific researches proving possibility of safe application of a mineral (in 60 countries of the world chrysotile is used already more than 100 years and continues to be used !). They have simply agreed with arguments of the European commission initiating antiasbestine campaign, which purpose - an interdiction of application of all kinds of asbestos, including chrysotile, internationally.
The given state-of-the-art review is executed on the basis of the medical scientific researches 1998-2009 concerning in a greater degree of problems of chrysotile use and containing him of materials and products as application of asbestos of amphibole groups is forbidden by the Convention the SQUANDERER number 162.
The following concerns the cores from these researches:
1. Research "The Professional exposition to asbestos and artificial mineral fibres and risk of development of a cancer of lungs: multicenter research on type "a case - a control" in Europe", spent in 1998-2002 under the direction of the International agency on cancer studying. 17 scientists took part in him from leading institutes of 11 countries: Great Britain, Hungary, Israel, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, Romania, Slovakia, France, Czechia, Sweden. The work purpose - to investigate influence of professional contact to asbestos and artificial mineral fibres on development of a cancer of lungs in the population of Europe. The professional and socially-demographic information on 2205 to the found out cases of a cancer of lungs at men and to 2305 control cases has been collected for the first time. Inhabitants of Great Britain and six countries of Central and the Eastern Europe from 16 cities became objects of researches.
* Parity of chances adjusted for the data about the research center, age, tobacco smoking, about contacts to quartz, arsenic, chrome, cadmium and other dangerous substances.
On the basis of the received results scientists have drawn following conclusions:
- in the countries Central and the Eastern Europe the raised risk of development of a cancer of lungs in connection with chrysotile it is not revealed;
- at the Englishmen contacting to amphibole-asbestos, the raised risk of a cancer of lungs is registered;
- the revealed distinctions are caused by type of an applied fibre and conditions of professional contact (in the countries Central and the Eastern Europe used basically chrysotile from the USSR and only in very small amounts of amphibole, and thus the method of a dusting of asbestos on building designs wasn't applied).
2. Research "Death rate of workers on two asbestos cement enterprises in Poland"; (2000) N.Sheshenija-Dabrovski, U.Vilchinski, V.Shimchak (Institute of medicine of work, Lodz, Poland).
Conclusion of scientists: "On two asbestos cement factories using only chrysotile, the raised risk of development of a cancer of lungs in a cohort it is not revealed".
3. Research "Death rate from a cancer among the Lithuanian workers of the asbestos cement industries"; (2004) G.Smalajt, J.Kurtinajtis (Institute of oncology of the Vilnius university, Lithuania), A.Andersen (the Norwegian register of a cancer). The basic conclusion of scientists: "At disease studying on two Lithuanian asbestos cement factories using in manufacture only chrysotile, the raised risk of development of a cancer of lungs it is not revealed".
4. Large epidemiological research "Three decades of registration of a cancer and a pleura mesothelioma in Austria where the fibrocement has been invented"; (2003) by M.Nojberger (branch of preventive medicine of Institute of hygiene of environment of the Viennese university) and H.Vutuk (branch of epidemiology of the Institute of research of a cancer of the Viennese university). It is spent in connection with the forecast of epidemiologist Dzh.Peto, made in 1999 concerning the future European epidemic of a mesothelioma the next 35 years which will be caused by asbestos use. Scientists have analysed indicators of disease and death rate from a pleura cancer for three decades (with 1970 for 2001) in Austria and have drawn following conclusions:
- the forecast is made on the basis of the data of Great Britain and six more countries which in considerable quantities applied amphibole asbestos, thus in calculations some doubtful methods of hyperdiagnostics are used;
- in Austria there are no reasons for expectation of considerable growth of cases of a mesothelioma in the future as asbestos application was always supervised better, than in those countries where forecasts were under construction;
- smaller growth of frequency of a mesothelioma is caused by different kinds of used asbestos;
- predictions are far-fetched, strained and forced, their extrapolation on other countries doesn't maintain criticism.
5. Research "Experience of the republic of South Africa on studying of cases of the mesothelioma caused by influence of asbestos in environment. Whether has value fibre type ?"; (2007) N.Uajt (Institute of lungs, Cape Town), J.Nelson (School of public health services), J.Marri (National institute of factory hygiene). Scientists have carried out the analysis of four researches covering the period with 1976 for 1992 when the republic of South Africa was the largest manufacturer of amphibole asbestos in the world (280 thousand tons/years of crokidolite and amosite) and his main exporter to the Western Europe and the USA. At the same time in this country it was extracted about 100 thousand tons of chrysotile asbestos.
Scientists have come to following conclusions:
- connection between amphibole and a mesothelioma is the obvious;
- cases of a mesothelioma caused by chrysotile, it is not revealed.
6. Research "Death rate among the workers who are exposed to influence of pure chrysotile on manufacture: research for 39 years"; (2008), scientists from Greece L.Sichletidis, etc. (laboratory of studying of the diseases caused by environmental contamination, Clinic of diseases of lungs, University, Tessaloniki). On the basis of the researches covering almost 40-lemny the period, authors have drawn following conclusions:
- mesothelioma cases it is not revealed;
- the general indicator of death rate of workers at the enterprise was considerably below an indicator of death rate of all population of Greece;
- industrial influence concerning pure chrysotile within admissible levels isn't connected with substantial growth of a cancer of lungs or mesotheliomas.
All above-named researches are executed by scientists of those countries where the asbestos interdiction is legislatively entered. There is a question: the entered interdictions are how much proved ? The answer is almost unequivocal: in these countries political decisions on an interdiction at first made, and then started to understand, whether there are medical bases for him. The scientific data testified: the bases for an interdiction aren't present. But, despite it, the passed law held good.
7. "Complex clinical-hygienic and epidemiological researches of working conditions and a state of health working on ten asbestos cement enterprises of Ukraine" have been spent to 2006-2008 to scientific research institute of medicine of work of Medical Science Academy of Ukraine under the direction of the academician Y.I.Kundiev. Whether their results are generalized in the brochure "Probably safe use chrysotile asbestos ? Experience of Ukraine". This work is executed because antiasbestine pressure of the European Union in Ukraine (here it was used only chrysotile from Russia and Kazakhstan) has amplified, it was difficult to resist to which in the absence of own researches. The data of hygienic researches has allowed to draw following conclusions:
- the dust content in air defined by a gravimetric method, on many workplaces, especially at unpacking and a dosage of chrysotile, in 1,6 - 5,8 times exceeded average shift maximum permissible concentration (0,5 mg/cubic meters);
- the maintenance of the fibres, defined by a phase-contrast method, didn't exceed 1 fibre/ml.
On the basis of clinical researches high level of a pathology of bronchus and pleura systems at the workers who are exposed to influence of chrysotile cement dust, especially among smokers has been revealed. However asbestosis and cancer cases it is not revealed. Epidemiological researches define levels and risks of oncological disease working (3066 persons are surveyed) on chrysotile cement manufactures for 1996-2005. Results are that:
- mid-annual oncological disease has made 88,1 on 100 thousand working (relative risk RR is equal 0,26) that in 3,8 times below a population risk level;
- in relation to regional levels the relative risk at the studied enterprises makes from 0,06 to 0,67.
8. Researches of scientists of Switzerland, Germany, the USA devoted to studying biological persistence of fibres (1999-2006) are very significant . Unique laboratory trials on animals who testify to fast clarification of lungs from inhaled fibres of chrysotile whereas amphibole fibres steady against the sour environment of lungs, are late in them for the period about one year and more are spent. These researches became an important basis for a kinetic and pathological substantiation of distinctions between chrysotile and amphibole fibres.
In particular, in 2007 D.Bernshtejn (the adviser for toxicology, Switzerland) and J.Hoskins (a member of the Royal society of chemistry, Great Britain) in article "Chrysotile-asbestos influence on health: the modern view based on the newest scientific data" was generalized by results of researches. Scientists have established that the toxicology of chrysotile which in lungs quickly collapses on set of small particles, is comparable to toxicology of not fibrous minerals, whereas toxicology of amphibole - the answer to their fibrous insoluble structure. Chrysotile is a sheet silicate in which because of distinction of diameters of ions of magnesium and silicon sheets are braided in tubes.
In the given drawing schematically (scheme A) is shown silicate sheet structure of a chrysotile fibre, the fibre is formed in the form of the thin braided sheet in the thickness 8 Angstroem unit (the resolved link on http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/powell/core_asbestos/asbestoshome.htm). At chrysotile fibre destruction (scheme B) magnesium is dissolved in the neutral environment, and the silica matrix collapses in the sour environment (Pundsack, 1955; Wypych, 2005).
Fibre units of chrysotile in the course of enrichment, crushing, and also humidifying are divided into separate parts, up to individual fibre. The external surface of chrysotile fibre is brusit, a mineral on the basis of magnesium. At processing of chrysotile fibres by the diluted acid it is possible to eliminate a magnesium oxide completely. Hydrated silica which remains fibrous under the form, completely loses elastic properties initial chrysotile and has structure amorphous or glass type. Removal of an oxide of magnesium from brusit under the influence of acid weakens fibres of chrysotile and gradually breaks their spatial stability. Sensitivity of chrysotile to acid dissolution is especially important in lungs where macro-phagies are capable to form environment with pH 4,5. On chrysotile fibres which are deduced from lungs and are swallowed, in a stomach hydrochloric acid with pH less than 2 influences. The chemical structure of amphibole fibres is much more difficult. Though their structures are identical, distinctions in a chemical compound are a direct consequence of that the silicate skeleton can include a mix of various ions (depending on containing breed) in space between the silicate tapes forming fibres (Speil and Leinewebeã, 1969). Theoretical formulas of five amphiboles are following:
crokidolite Na2Fe32+Fe23+Si8O22(OH)2 ; amosite (Fe2+,Mg)7Si8O22(OH)2 ; tremolite Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
antophilite (Mg,Fe2+)7Si8O22(OH)2 ; aktinolite Ca2(Mg,Fe2+)5Si8O22(OH)2
The external surface of crystal structure of amphibole is similar to a surface of quartz and possesses the same chemical firmness. Each of amphibole fibres represents dual chains of silicon oxygen tetrahedrons. In a case with tremolite orange spheres represent cations of magnesium and calcium which are stuck together by two chains of a fibre. Communication between chains weak, and they, as a rule, break up to separate fibres along their axis. The weak communications keeping together separate fibres, in lungs are quickly broken off, however amphibole fibres aren't dissolved neither in neutral, nor in the sour environment.
On the given scheme the amphibole fibre structure and the amphibole fibre disintegration are presented.
Authors have established that the period of half-removal fibres of asbestos in length more than 20 microns:
- tremolite: never;
- crokidolite: 536 days;
- amosite: 418 days;
- chrysotile: from 0,3 to 11,4 days.
Thereupon it is necessary to remind of the instruction of the European commission on artificial mineral fibres of 1997 which ascertains that if long fibres quickly are dissolved or collapse and disappear from lungs, they don't cause cancerogenic effect. Among mineral fibres chrysotile possesses higher solubility. For comparison researchers have cited the data about the period of half-removal mineral fibres in length more than 20 microns which are used as substitutes of chrysotile and are positioned by manufacturers as safe:
- cellulose fibre: 1046 days;
- ceramic fibre: 55 days;
- para-amides fibre: 45 days;
- glass fiber: 6-79 days;
- stone cotton wool: 5-67 days.
Scientists, naturally, have asked a question: Why experimental researches of pure chrysotile, spent on animals, show, as a rule, high percent of development of a cancer ? Toxicological researches have answered: long inhalation on animals influence of chrysotile was made by very high doses of an exposition, much more above level of modern manufactures, it and has led to an overload of lungs. Therefore their relevance to expositions of the person is extremely low. The toxicological researches of fibres spent in vitro, are very useful to finding-out of possible mechanisms of pathogenesis, however their results are very difficult for interpreting, as they don't reflect distinction in solubility of fibres. During experiments for affirmative reply reception high doses of fibres are used, and they are difficult for extrapolating on the low-level expositions which are taking place in vivo. For the proof of it scientists (for example Bernstein, etc.) have spent experiments on animals with a various exposition to chrysotile and have received such results:
- at average concentration of chrysotile fibres in a dust 76 fibre/sm and L more than 20 microns, within 90 days of influence and 92 days of restoration of an organism - developments of fibrousis weren't observed;
- at concentration 207 fibre/sm and L more than 20 microns was observed small fibrousis. Researchers have drawn a conclusion:
- at enough high concentration of chrysotile containing, as well as any other mineral dust, and the big duration of an exposition there is a potential possibility of development of diseases;
- at low levels of an exposition lungs of the person can quite cope with short fibres and particles arriving in them.
9. The international research "Studying of working conditions and a state of health of the workers occupied on extraction and enrichment of asbestos in Siberia". In 2001 at industrial complex "Uralasbest" enterprises (the city of Asbest of Sverdlovsk area) within the limits of the joint Russian-Finnish-American scientific project four establishments: National institute of a labor safety of the USA, the Finnish institute of medicine of work, the scientific research institute of medicine of work of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences and the Ekaterinburg medical center of science is executed his final stage. At performance of the given work have been spent:
- radiological inspection of 2003 working industrial complexes;
- research of functions of external breath at 414 workers who have passed radiological inspection;
- profound medical examination of 289 workers;
- an estimation of existing and last levels of a dust content at the industrial complex enterprises.
Middle age of the surveyed has made 47 years (from 27 to 78). The experience of work in the conditions of influence chrysotile dust from 1 year till 47 years (on the average 22 years). The minimum time last from the beginning of contact, equaled to 1 year, the maximum 59 years (on the average 25 years). The majority of the surveyed worked those years when dust content levels at the enterprise reached tens and hundreds milligrams in 1 cubic m. Thus almost at 90 % surveyed, despite high levels of a dust content on workplaces and the long experience of work, wasn't observed radiological changes in an organism, characteristic for action of a dust of chrysotile-asbestos. In 70 % of cases in general any radiological changes it has not been revealed. Changes were observed mainly at workers of the old factories closed by the time of carrying out of research. Dependence between a dose of a dust and effect was accurately traced.
Results of the newest researches spent in the different countries on pure chrysotile, are almost identical. However opponents of use chrysotile persistently propagandize results of the researches spent in Europe, the USA, Australia and testifying to negative consequences of application of a mix amphibole and chrysotile asbestos.
It is necessary to notice that antiasbestine campaign has both certain positive, and negative results. On the one hand, she has drawn attention of physicians-hygienists to an asbestos problem, and in it her positive role. In many countries the effective systems are developed and introduced in practice, allowing to exclude an adverse effect of asbestos on working and the population. On the other hand, her initiators have generated the opinion convenient for separate politicians and economists which the asbestos interdiction is favourable by means of mass media. They stimulate continuation of campaign mind some asbestos and involve in her scientists and the international organizations.
However in the conditions of aggressive antiasbestine campaign the objective scientific data confirming possibility of safe use chrysotile and materials containing him, is called into question for the reason that they won't be coordinated with interests:
- manufacturers of alternative materials and the governments supporting them;
- the organizations specializing on removal of asbestos from buildings;
- the lawyers, earning hundred millions dollars on so-called "victims of asbestos";
- some scientists financed from the European and American funds and focused on reception of results, arranging customer;
- politicians and the public organizations which have found work on "a muddy" wave of struggle with "world murderer";
- other organizations financially dependent on antiasbestine lobbies.
Not without reason the American council about a science and health in October, 2007 in the published report "The exposition to asbestos: how much she is dangerous ?" ascertained: "The problem now is, whether can to use regulating departments the modern scientific data even if it will demand to change existing system of concepts or views".
Frequently supporters of an interdiction, speaking about carcinogenicity of asbestos, prove the arguments, referring to documents the CART and IARC. But they intentionally ignore their essence, using only that him is favourable to achievement of specific goals.
At 60th session of the World assembly of public health services in 2007 in accepted "the Global plan of action on health protection working for 2008-2017" in item 10 it is written down:" Activity the CART will include carrying out of global campaigns for the purpose of liquidation of the illnesses connected with asbestos, taking into account the differentiated approach to regulation of his various forms ".
In last reports IARC (March and October, 2009) in the list of carcinogens of 1 class of danger are named: aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, dioxine, formaldehyde etc. Also represent cancerogenic danger for the person: tobacco (even passive smoking), a nut an areca, alcohol, a coal smoke, salty fish; manufacture of rubber, a skin and footwear from her; beryliy, cadmium, nickel, chrome and their connections; a crystal dust of silica, arsenic etc. Inhalation - the basic way of an exposition to arsenic on a workplace in such industries, as molding of nonferrous metals, arsenic manufacture, a woodworking, glass manufacture, manufacture and application of pesticides on the basis of arsenic, electronics. Epidemiological researches have shown that inhalation and per-oral expositions to arsenic cause development of a cancer of a lung, a skin and a bladder.
In report IARC it is told about dependence between asbestos and the raised risk of development of a cancer of lungs and mesotheliomas. However authors notice that "responses of respiratory organs to an inhalation exposition to asbestos fibres essentially differ between kinds" (means chrysotile and amphibole). This conclusion will be coordinated with the formulation the CART.
It would seem, the true has triumphed. However, despite the numerous scientific data confirming possibility supervised, safe use chrysotile, propagandists of an interdiction of his application continue to impose to a society an asbestos phobia. The proof of their bias is that from set of carcinogens they focus attention only on chrysotile, distracting the international public from such vital problems, as: struggle against chronic diseases (cardiovascular, a cancer, a stroke, a diabetes, AIDS, a tuberculosis), children's death rate etc. which decision of CART named among priority directions of the activity.
Discussion proceeds in a wide format of the international organizations. Who will win: supporters of real preventive methods of struggle against occupational diseases or for whom antiasbestine campaign has turned to profitable business ? It would be desirable to believe that the common sense and the real care about professional health of workers will prevail over conjectures of antiasbestine lobbies.
And, apparently, it occurs. It has been above mentioned "terrible" forecasts of English epidemiologist Dzh.Peto in 1999. In 2009 his position in relation to chrysotile has considerably changed. In the presentation on the Symposium in Harward on July, 24th, 2009 "World tendencies of death rate from a mesothelioma" he has declared that amphiboles are more dangerous, than chrysotile because they aren't deduced from lungs. Dzh.Peto shares opinion of scientifics Hodzheon and Darnton that the risk of occurrence of a mesothelioma for chrysotile, amosite and crokidolite makes accordingly 1:100:500, and occurrence of a cancer from chrysotile and amphiboles is in limits 1:10 and 1:50. He says: "The mesothelioma is caused mainly by influence of blue and brown asbestos. Risk of occurrence from white asbestos much less". Dzh.Peto confirms: "Harm exaggeration of chrysotile distracts attention from harm of amphiboles". He considers that man's death rate from a mesothelioma almost five times above in Great Britain, than in the USA, because of influence amphiboles, instead of chrysotile. Conclusions of the report of Peto have caused sharp irritation from antiasbestine lobbies which arranged pickets with slogans "don't recognize the report of Peto", etc.
It follows from this that, despite pressure of antiasbestine forces and persecution on scientists who support the use of chrysotile (and it is in "the civilized" democratic countries !) the objective scientific data makes the way in life.
The list of references
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17. Peto, Og. Worldwide mesothelioma mortalitytrends Harvard Symposium, 24th July 2009, http:// www.brighàmandwîmens.org/måsothåliîma/imagås/Ðåtî- % 20presentation%20 (Î7%2024%202009).ððt#Ç18,1
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Publications and materials
The decision of board of directors of JSC "Uralasbest" on interaction with the Government of Sverdlovsk region in the environmental protection sphere. February 2012.
Antiasbestine campaign - business war under an ecological flag. "The Building Newspaper" (Russia), February 2011
Commercial ears: how the antiasbestine lobby manipulates public opinion."The Russian Newspaper" (Russia), December 2010
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